德甲下注-A burgeoning civil rights movement is poised to change the workplace, and it revolves around differences in brain function. Advocates for neurodiversity say that it’s just as critical to business success as gender or racial diversity in the labor force.一场环绕着大脑功能差异的民权运动正在美国很快蓬勃发展,或将转变职场现状。提倡推崇神经系统多样性的人群明确提出,神经多样性与劳动力的性别及种族多元化一样,也是企业南北顺利的决定性因素。A growing number of companies actively recruit candidates on the autism spectrum for tasks that are suited to their strengths, such as those involving large amounts of data or rigorous attention to detail. They include SAP, Freddie Mac, ULTRA Testing, as well as specialized recruiting and placement firms for people with neurological differences.更加多的企业主动聘请患上自闭症的应聘者,并决定他们专门从事所擅长于的工作,比如那些必须处置大量数据或极为侧重细节的岗位。这类企业还包括SAP公司、房地美、ULTRA Testing以及那些专门雇用与移往神经系统疾病患者的企业。

Given that an estimated 70% of disabilities aren’t obvious to the casual observer, it’s a certainty that even more organizations already employ people with a brain difference, whether it’s autism, ADHD, dyslexia, dyspraxia, Tourette’s syndrome, disfluency, or a mood disorder. Many companies have employee resource groups and networks to support workers with their own or a family member’s neurological difference.由于70%的残疾人士症状并不显著,普通人无法察觉到,所以可以认同的是,还有更好的企业也聘请了那些脑部出现异常的劳动者,如自闭症、留意缺失多动症、阅读障碍、运动障碍、多发性抽动症、口吃或情绪紊乱患者。许多企业还正式成立了各种员工资源小组和联系网络,为这类员工及其家人获取涉及的协助。“We see differences in physical, cognitive, and mental health as differences in the human condition,” says Lori Golden, abilities strategy leader for EY. “The most relevant challenge for business is to bring in the very best talent for the work we do and create an environment that can unleash the full abilities of every person.”“我们把生理、理解以及心理健康方面的差异看做是人与人之间必定不存在的差异。

”安永人力策略主管洛利o戈尔安讲解说道,“对于企业来说,仅次于的挑战是选派最合理的人才,并且建构一个能让每个人充分发挥能力的工作环境。”Individuals with a neurological disability often possess a strength associated with their condition, in the same way a blind person may enjoy a keen sense of smell, hearing, or taste. For instance, people with ADHD tend to be innovative, curious, and active. “There are a huge number of jobs that are open to people who are super creative, energetic, and information seeking,” notes Karin Wulf, a William Mary history professor who spearheaded the college’s neurodiversity working group.神经疾病患者往往由于不存在这种差异而不具备某种能力,这和盲人有可能享有灵敏的嗅觉、听力或味觉的情况类似于。例如,多动症患者富裕创造力,充满著好奇心并且十分活跃。“对于那些尤其有创新、精力充沛并热衷吸取信息的人来说,有无数份工作可以可供他们自由选择,”威廉玛丽学院历史学教授卡林o伍尔夫认为。

伍尔夫是该院神经系统多样性工作小组的带头人。About 2% of the population has an atypical neurological structure, the same percentage within the U.S. as the Jewish population, a group that no recruiter would consider discounting in a talent search, points outs John Elder Robison, author and neurodiversity scholar-in-residence at The College of William Mary.作家兼任威廉玛丽学院神经系统多样性派驻研究学者约翰o埃尔德o罗宾逊认为,全世界大约有2%的人享有出现异常的神经系统结构,这个比例和犹太人在美国人口当中的比例完全相同。而在选派人才时,没雇员不敢忽略犹太人群体。“Neurodiversity, from the standpoint of a human resources department, is poised to be the next civil rights frontier that will have to be dealt with,” says Robison, who realized he was on the autism spectrum as an adult. “One in 50 is not small.”“从人力资源部门的角度来看,神经系统多样性终将沦为下一个谋求公民权利的前沿阵地,”罗宾逊预测,他在成年之后发现自己是一名自闭症患者。

“五十分之一这个比例可远比小。”他说道。This revolution poses challenges for both neuro-atypical individuals and employers. Workers must learn to understand and manage their own brain differences and how and when to disclose it to colleagues and supervisors. Companies must create inclusive cultures that encourage openness about how each person works best, not to mention screening and recruiting the best talent without being blinded by neurological conditions that aren’t relevant to a job’s requirements.这场革命给神经性障碍患者和雇员都带给了挑战。

作为员工,人们必需学会解读和掌控自己大脑的多样性,在同事与主管面前掌控好公开发表这一差异的时机和方式;作为企业则必需建构包容性的企业文化,希望对外开放的心态,让每位员工充份施展才华。而且,在检验和聘用时,会因为与工作必须牵涉到的神经系统障碍而漏掉优秀人才。“In the autistic community you have a significant number of people, often with substantial technical skills or education, who are systemically undervalued by the job market as a result of not interviewing well or not making eye contact,” says Ari Ne’eman, president and co-founder of the Autistic Self-Advocacy Network and the first openly autistic presidential appointee.“在自闭症患者中,有非常一部分人掌控了最重要的专业技能或者接受较好的教育,但是这些人总是因为试镜展现出不欠佳或拒绝接受眼神认识,而被劳务市场高估,”阿里o尼尔曼说,他是美国自闭症自我宣传网络的总裁兼联合发起人,他还是美国历史上第一位取得总统任命、公开发表否认患上自闭症的人士。

In partnership with ASAN, Freddie Mac established a paid internship program that places candidates with autism in three areas: information technology, enterprise risk management, and the single-family mortgage business.房地美公司与自闭症自我宣传网络合作,发动了一项休假进修计划,目的是为患上自闭症的应聘者获取三大领域的工作,还包括信息技术、企业风险管理以及独栋住宅房贷业务。“This is an untapped reservoir of talent that we have discovered,” says Megan Pirochukoas, a senior diversity specialist at Freddie Mac, who warns that other employers ignore autistic candidates at their peril. “You’re overlooking someone who is highly analytical, very focused, and very task-oriented, who likes to be in that space.”房地美资深多样性专家梅根o皮罗楚卡奥斯讲解说道,“我们找到这是一个仍未研发的人才宝库,”他警告说道,忽略自闭症应聘者是有风险的。“因为你忽略的有可能是分析能力出众、专注力极强、需要高效已完成任务的人才,他们很讨厌这种工作状态。”Adults with autism tend to be underemployed because they often face challenges with social interaction. So Freddie Mac coached hiring managers to dig deeper if they received a resume with a spotty work record and to be open to adapting the screening process so autistic candidates could shine, such as giving interview questions in advance. Managers and employees who would be working with interns also received neurodiversity training ahead of time and participated in a buddy system to pair interns with neurotypical employees in their group. The housing finance company brought in ASAN about halfway through the 16-week internship for a pulse check, so interns would have a safe place to address concerns or problems they might be experiencing.成年自闭症患者低收入很艰难,原因是他们往往在社交方面不存在障碍。



Now in the fourth year of the internship program, Freddie Mac has hired several interns as permanent full-time employees. Managers have discovered that some of the tools they developed for working with autistic adults—such as being extremely clear with instructions and asking how people prefer to communicate—are actually useful practices for all employees. Some Freddie Mac employees even came to realize that they themselves might be on the autism spectrum.现在是进修计划展开的第四年,房地美早已雇用了多名这个计划的实习生作为长年全职雇员。经理们找到,他们为成人自闭症患者研发的工具,例如十分明晰的指南,以及告知人们更加偏向于何种交流方式的作法,实质上对所有雇员来说都很简单。

有些房地美的雇员甚至意识到,他们自己也有可能患上自闭症谱系障碍。Outside of an internship program aimed at a neurodiverse population, it’s tricky for an employer to hire inclusively. For one, it’s illegal to ask a candidate whether he has a disability. So instead, employers must be sensitive and responsive to differences that may relate to a neurological condition.而在专门针对神经系统多样性人群的进修计划之外,雇员的聘用都必须十分小心。举例来说,告知一个求职者否有神经障碍是违法的。所以,雇员们必需十分脆弱,需要察觉与神经系统涉及的不道德差异。

“It’s very hard for us when somebody hasn’t disclosed [their condition], so our recruiters have to be thinking about it but they can’t be assuming,” says Barbara Wankoff, director of workplace solutions at KPMG.“如果求职者不主动透漏[他们的情况],我们很难找到。所以,我们的聘用人员必需思维这一问题,但是无法提早下结论,”毕马威会计师事务所(KPMG)的工作场所解决方案总监巴巴拉o万科夫讲解。

For individuals with a brain difference, neurodiversity at work can seem even more fraught. It’s important to focus on what skills and value you can bring to a workplace, not on the accommodations you may need for your disability, says Scott Sonnon, a Bellingham, Wash.-based author and tactical fitness instructor for the federal government who was institutionalized as a child and deemed unteachable.而对于不存在大脑差异的个人来说,神经多样性或许工商管理场中为他们带给了更大的后遗症。斯科特o索内是一位华盛顿州贝灵翰姆的作家,也是联邦政府的技巧性健身教练,但是他在孩提时曾有过被收容的经历,而且一度被视作没自学能力。

他认为,工作时必需专心于自己所擅长于的技能和需要为工作机构带给的价值,而不是对自己的缺失耿耿于怀、心生顺应,这一点十分最重要。“If I view my dyslexia and dyspraxia as a disability that must be endured, I put myself in the worst position neurologically,” says Sonnon, who finds that the more conscious he is of having trouble with word access, the longer the pauses in his speech. “It’s so therapeutic and healthy to be able to laugh at the tradeoffs and embrace the fact that you have advantages.”“如果将自己的阅读障碍和运动障碍视为必需承受的残疾,就不会让自己的精神状况正处于最差劲的境地,”索内认为。


”When he gives a speech or lecture, Sonnon says he trades off every 15 to 30 minutes with an assistant, “usually someone who has a rapid intensity and more rapidly firing brain organization like ADHD,” he explains. “It’s great for the audience. They get the rapid infusion of many topics at once. Then they come back to the slow, big boom.”索内回应,当发表演说或演讲时,他每15到30分钟必须与一名助理互相交换。“一般来说他们需要较慢很快大量信息量,而且和ADHD患者一样,享有能更慢运转的脑组织,”他说明说道,“这对观众来说是个好事,因为可以一下子取得包括很多个主题的内容。

然后,他们又返回一个较慢的状态,等候愈演愈烈。”Jean Winegardner, 41, loved her work as a copy editor and excelled at the job, but struggled to fit into the workplace in the years after graduate school, before she was diagnosed with autism. “The social aspects always got to me after a time and I would find a reason why I needed to quit,” Winegardner writes in an email interview. “I think that if I had understood my neurological makeup earlier, I could have found ways to help myself cope with the way workplaces work and how I could fit into them.”现年41岁的珍o瓦恩加德纳十分热衷她的文字编辑工作,而且做到得十分出众。不过,在毕业后的那些年,她仍然很难带入工作环境,后来被临床为自闭症。


”Autistic employees can be more focused, waste little time socializing, and persevere until they complete their tasks, she notes. “I think it is wonderful that some companies are actively seeking out autistic people because of their strengths. I only hope that this acceptance and understanding spreads,” writes Winegardner, who now works as ASAN’s office manager and writes a blog called Stimeyland.她提及,患上自闭症的员工精力更加集中于,在社交方面浪费的时间也不多,而且需要持之以恒直到任务的已完成。“我指出,一些公司重视这一优势并且大力谋求这类人才的作法有一点认同。我唯一的心愿就是社会对这类人群的采纳和解读需要继续下去,”瓦恩加德纳在博客中这样写到。

目前,瓦恩加德纳兼任ASAN的办公室经理,并且进了一个取名为Stimeyland的博客。Everyone interviewed for this article agreed that disclosing an invisible disability like autism or ADHD is a challenging personal decision.所有受访者完全一致指出,公开发表自己的自闭症或ADHD等隐性残疾是一个很艰苦的个人要求。“Every person has to decide, is the risk of severe social isolation greater than the possible greater social acceptance?” says Robison. “This is much like coming out and saying you’re gay in a straight workplace or you’re Jewish in a Christian workplace. Some people will say, ‘I can’t relate to that.’ It may drive you apart from your coworkers and it may bring you together.”“每个人都要殊不知一下,被社会相当严重孤立无援的风险否不会低于受到尊重采纳的可能性。


”First, consider whether you can manage your condition—or find a workaround— without naming it. For instance, EY’s Golden says she helped a colleague on the autism spectrum develop scripts to give colleagues and clients a heads up that he lacked some social graces. He told them he had a habit of sometimes saying the wrong thing and asked them to do him the favor of pointing it out, if it happened.首先你要考虑到否需要掌控自己的病情,或是寻找一个变通方法,这样就需要提及病情。譬如,安永的戈尔登曾协助一位自闭症谱系障碍的同事设计了一份台词,以警告其他同事和客户,他的不道德有可能缺乏一些社交礼节。他不会告诉他其他人,他有时不会说道错话,并且期望他们在他说道错话的时候能老大他认为来。

“That way, he accomplished several things: he took away the surprise factor, he made himself vulnerable and therefore more likable and approachable, and he invited people to be part of the solution,” Golden recalls. “An individual with any kind of disability needs to—above all—know him or herself, what his strengths and weaknesses are, and be able to make … decisions on that basis.”“这样一来,他一下解决问题了几件事:避免了车祸因素,展现出薄弱显得更为讨人讨厌且平易近人,而且他还邀其他人一起参予创建解决方案。”戈尔安回想道,“无论你有何种缺失,最重要的是要理解自己,理解自己的优势和劣势,并需要在此基础上做出要求。”Similarly, San Francisco lawyer Louise, 40, manages her bipolar disorder with humor and discretion. If her medication causes her to stutter or have trouble accessing a word, she says she’ll make light of it, saying, “I really can’t talk today!”类似于的情况还有来自旧金山的40岁律师路易斯,她用幽默感和判断力来掌控自己的躁郁症。如果药物造成她说出经常出现结巴或是说出艰难,她只不会轻描淡写地说一句:“我今天知道无法讲话!”She manages her trial schedule in keeping with her mood cycles, using the manic energy for her benefit in the run up to a hearing or trial, and then telecommuting when she inevitably crashes afterwards. “Being medicated and watching myself as I do, I use periods of high intensity and high energy to get a lot done, knowing there’s always going to be a period that I don’t have any energy and I have to work from home,” she says. “Sometimes it’s very useful for me to be manic when I’m a litigator, so long as it doesn’t tip into the panic range. I have a lot of energy; my brain moves very quickly.”她将开庭决定与情绪周期保持一致,病态的情绪有助她出庭申辩,而在情绪不可避免地瓦解之后,她又可以自由选择远程办公。

她说道,“我会在服用完了药物后仔细观察自己的展现出,然后将精力最集中于最丰沛的时期当作已完成大量工作,然后在没任何能量的时候在家办公。有时候,这对我来说十分简单,作为律师我可以展现出疯狂,只要情绪会陷于混乱的程度就好。而且我还能取得丰沛的能量,大脑可以飞速地运转。”Out of fear of losing her license to practice law, she keeps her condition a secret at work, and asked that her full name not be used in this article.出于对丧失律师从业许可的忧虑,她在工作时都会将病情掩饰,在拒绝接受本文专访时也拒绝不用于她的全名。

Educator Beth Baker, 62, says she must constantly remind herself to listen 60% of the time and speak 40% of the time, to compensate for her self-diagnosed Asperger’s syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder. “All of us develop strategies and tactics for making it through the day and dealing with life, and dealing with the rough edges and approximations,” says Baker, a coach and facilitator based in Richland Center, Wis., and director of the International Trauma Abatement Project.62岁的教育家贝斯o贝克则回应,她必需大大警告自己,能用60%的时间聆听,40%的时间说出,这样才能掌控她自我临床出来的阿斯伯格症——一种自闭症谱系障碍症候群。她说道,“患上这种病的人都在想尽办法、耗尽策略熬过每一天,在边缘和无限大状态绝望。”贝克目前是威斯康星州里奇兰中心的一名教练和辅导师,她还是国际后遗症避免项目的负责人。

If your invisible disability may affect your work performance, you should consider disclosing it at least to human resources, where it will stay confidential. For instance, if you have epilepsy, your employer would benefit from being prepared in case you have a seizure. The discussion with human resources should revolve around the tools, equipment, and environment you need to do your best work, not about the disability itself, Golden notes.如果你的隐性残疾影响到了工作展现出,你最少应当考虑到通报人力资源部,他们会替你激进秘密。比如,如果你患上癫痫症,一旦癫痫发作,你的雇员需要及早准备加以应付。戈尔安认为,在与人力资源部聊天时,应该以你必须何种工具、设备以及环境来构建最佳的工作状态作为主题,而不该重点辩论你的疾病。Neurotypical employees can learn from and benefit from the advances made by neurodiversity advocates. An increased awareness of differences in people’s brain function and communication preferences could improve the work that everyone does.身体健康的员工可以从神经多样性倡导者所获得的进展中自学并获益。

人们对大脑功能和交流偏爱差异了解的提升有助改良所有人的工作展现出。“Can you imagine if you went into a workplace and everyone had a sense of their abilities and their mode of interaction?” William Mary’s Wulf says. “We’re right at the beginning of the wave. It hasn’t crested.”“你需要想象得出结论,当你走出某个工作场所,大家都对自己的能力和沟通模式了然于心吗?”威廉玛丽学院的伍尔夫说,“我们正处于这样一种浪潮的开端,未来还有发展空间。。